One of the most important of the human body’s five senses is sight. Cataracts, one of the most common eye diseases due to the opacification of the lens, affect almost the majority of elderly people worldwide. Cataracts are not simply the cause of aging of the lens of the eye. However, it can be affected by various factors that can damage it.


Most cataracts evolve slowly, over several years. The most common one that is related to the aging of the lens is senile cataract. This is a disease that is unfortunately unavoidable from the age of sixty onwards. The normal aging process often affects one eye more than the other, and can lead to a progressive loss of transparency, the opacification of the crystalline lens. This phenomenon can affect the periphery of the crystalline lens which affects vision a little less. But if the opacification affects the center of the lens, vision begins to be impaired. Only surgery can treat this vision problem, which is mostly age-related.

In the case of children, cataracts are a genetic disease that they carry naturally at birth. But a child can also be affected by a cataract when he or she has suffered trauma to the eyes. It can also be transmitted by the mother during pregnancy, following the appearance of an infection such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, genital herpes, etc.


Some diseases can cause cataracts in a patient. Poorly treated diabetes is often the cause of cataracts. It is also caused by taking medication during treatment. In particular the consumption of corticosteroids, as well as medicines containing cortisone. People who consume alcohol and tobacco very often can also be affected by cataract, those who damage the proteins in the lens of the eye. Cataracts can form during cancer radiation therapy or eye surgery.

Diet plays an important role in the course of the disease. A low intake of fruit and vegetables, lack of vitamins and antioxidants could lead to the development of cataract. Traumatic cataract occurs after trauma to the eyeball, this could be due to shock, thermal or chemical burns. Workers exposed to welding equipment, facing intense light intensities may also experience an onset of the disease. The abuse of devices with screens such as mobile phones, computers, television, and many others has a negative impact on vision.

Repeated exposure to the sun can develop cataract if protective glasses are not used. This is because ultraviolet rays rapidly accelerate the aging of the lens, which acts as a filter and protection so that it does not reach the retina. As a result, the lens deteriorates and loses all its transparency. Residents of the sunniest cities are at high risk of developing cataract rapidly, according to a study by researchers in France.


The most striking sign of this eye disease is the physical appearance of the eyes. It is very often inconspicuous, as the person with the disease may not be aware of it. A kind of milky haze appears in the lens of the eye, and gradually covers the pupil. Gradually, a decrease in vision begins, followed by the appearance of a slight haze over the whole of the vision, and glare in bright lights. Regardless of the origin of the cataract, the necessary treatment must absolutely go through surgery performed by an ophthalmologist. It consists of replacing the damaged lens with an artificial lens under local anaesthesia.