In spite of the great medical progress nowadays that makes it possible to quickly set up effective treatment for patients, treating paediatric pathologies is still a truly delicate task. Of course, in children, the evolution of pathologies can be overwhelming. So the slightest error or impression of the diagnosis can have serious consequences.
PAEDIATRIC PATHOLOGY: WHAT EXACTLY DO WE NEED TO KNOW?
To be more precise, pediatric pathology is a pathological sub-specialty covering both foetal and pediatric pathology. The activity of the paediatric pathologist in this case requires a thorough knowledge of both normal developmental and pathological processes. In fact, pathological processes can vary considerably during development. In addition, in paediatrics there is the so-called pathological examination, which includes the areas of accidents such as the effects of an unfavourable intrauterine environment, the consequences of premature birth, various infections and their adverse effects on the toddler, and neoplasia. Of embryonic origin (involving various aspects of differentiation of the primitive tissue), which is of course responsible for many pathologies in children, neoplasia occupies a considerable place in paediatrics. Pediatric pathology also consists of highlighting the risk factors for disease while locating the genes involved in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
THE STAKES ARE HIGH FOR PAEDIATRIC RESEARCH
The pathologist must conduct paediatric research to effectively identify childhood pathologies. Therefore, to explore them from top to bottom, the pathologist opts for an anatomopathological diagnosis: infectious diseases, cancers, congenital malformations, autism, children’s mental illnesses, epilepsy, myopia, morbid obesity, after-effects of abuse, paediatric respiratory pathology, diabetes, paediatric cardio-pathology, and other health problems. In the case of chronic diseases, the young patient can of course receive care in a specialised centre. Then, depending on the extent of the pathology and the age of the little one, the pathologist can collaborate with an interdisciplinary team or rather with obstetricians, oncologists, geneticists, ophthalmologists, surgeons…
THE ACTIVITY OF THE PAEDIATRIC PATHOLOGIST WHICH IS BECOMING MORE AND MORE COMPLICATED
In paediatrics, diagnosis can sometimes be very difficult because of the physiological dynamics of developing organs and tissues. Moreover, while many paediatric diseases can also affect adults, the molecules used to treat the elderly are never developed for children. This leads us to the conclusion that adult drugs used in pediatrics are not necessarily effective. In addition, there are also certain diseases that only affect children and require specific treatments. Apart from all this, there are also other limitations that further complicate paediatric pathology, such as the small amount of equipment used and the lack of experience due to the complexity and rarity of certain pathologies.